To track the health of the Chesapeake Bay, researchers across the watershed watch so-called “indicator species” for clues about water quality. Bay grasses—sensitive to pollution but quick to respond to water quality improvements—are one such indicator. Bay grasses are monitored each year by a range of experts in the field, from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS), the latter of which compiles Bay-wide observations in an annual report on bay grass abundance.
Bay grasses, also known as submerged aquatic vegetation or SAV, provide critical habitat and food for wildlife, add oxygen to the water, absorb nutrients, trap sediment and reduce erosion.
During the months of May, July and September, biologists like Chris Guy, who works with USFWS, visit randomly selected sample sites throughout the Bay. Occasionally accompanied by volunteers, their mission is to track the ebb and flow of underwater grass beds in order to gauge the health of the Bay.
Once a sampling site is reached, researchers use a refractometer to determine the salinity of the water. Different bay grass species prefer different salinity levels, and this measurement gives biologists a hint as to what kind of grasses they should expect to find.
Biologists measure water clarity by submerging a black and white Secchi disk until it is no longer visible, at which point it is pulled up and the waterline is measured. Clear water is important to the health of bay grasses. Because they need sunlight to survive, submerged aquatic vegetation is typically not found in water deeper than five feet.
Once the salinity and turbidity are measured, a rake is tossed into the water and allowed to sink to the bottom.
As the rake grips the bottom and the boat moves forward, the line attaching the rake to the boat becomes taught. The thrower hauls it back on board, records the grass species that are found and rates the abundance level on a scale of one to four. A one indicates an empty rake, while a four means that at least 70 percent of the rake is full of grass.
Hundreds of sampling trips allow scientists to amass a set of data that can be used to measure grass abundance across the Bay. Over the past 30 years, this number has fluctuated with changes in weather and water quality. In 2012, a VIMS analysis indicated bay grasses experienced a 21 percent decline, from just over 63,000 acres in 2011 to just over 48,000 in 2012. The Chesapeake Bay Program and its partners hope to restore 185,000 acres of underwater grasses to the Bay, which would approach historic twentieth century averages and bring a dramatic improvement to the entire Bay ecosystem.
View more photos on the Chesapeake Bay Program Flickr page.
Photos by Steve Droter
Former Maryland State Senator Bernie Fowler saw his sneakers through 34 inches of water at the 26th annual Patuxent River Wade-In on June 9. This marks a one-inch drop from last year’s “sneaker index,” which is what Fowler has come to call the deepest point at which he can still see his shoes as he wades into the water.
Fowler holds the wade-in each year to bring attention to the polluted waters of the Patuxent River and the Chesapeake Bay. This year marked the fourth wade-in to be held at Jefferson Patterson Park and Museum, after decades on Broomes Island.
In the 1950s, Fowler could wade into the Patuxent up to his chest and still see fish, shellfish and underwater grasses. But as nutrient and sediment pollution are pushed into the river, algae blooms and suspended silt block sunlight from reaching the river bottom and degrade water clarity. The 1950s sneaker index of 63 inches now serves as the benchmark for a restored Patuxent River.
Fowler’s infamous white sneakers were retired before this year’s wade-in, but will be preserved for permanent display at the Calvert Marine Museum.
View more photos on the Chesapeake Bay Program Flickr page.
Baltimore Harbor scored a C- on its latest water quality report card, marking a modest improvement from the previous year’s failing grade. According to the Waterfront Partnership of Baltimore and Blue Water Baltimore, who released the Healthy Harbor Report Card earlier this month, the Harbor met water quality standards 40 percent of the time in 2012.
Image courtesy Affordable Memories Photography of Fredericksburg/Flickr
While the spring of 2012 brought an algae bloom, a fish kill and a sewage spill to the Harbor, the summer saw little rainfall and a drop in the amount of polluted runoff being pushed off of streets and into the urban waterway.
The nonprofits behind the release of the report card hope to make the Harbor swimmable and fishable by 2020, and have embarked on a number of environmental initiatives to achieve this goal. More than 50 floating wetlands continue to capture stormwater runoff, absorb excess nutrients and provide habitat to water-filtering invertebrates after being installed along the Harbor’s shoreline. And students from five Baltimore City public schools have formed Green Teams to boost local awareness about the region’s persistent trash problem.
Learn more about the Healthy Harbor Report Card.
Overlooking Baltimore Harbor on a warm spring day, the grounds of Fort McHenry National Monument and Shrine are an alluring sight. The fort is now protected by the National Park Service (NPS), nearly 200 years after its historic stand during the Battle of Baltimore, which birthed our naitonal anthem.
Nestled outside of the fort’s borders is an urban wetland: seven acres of manmade wildlife habitat that set a progressive example of how to overcome urbanization, development and other modern-day environmental obstacles.
The wetland was created by the Maryland Transportation Authority in 1982 to mitigate the construction of the Interstate 95 tunnel. It is currently being restored under the supervision of The National Ocean Service (NOS) and The National Aquarium.
In 1998, the aquarium realized the potential of the wetland as an educational tool and now uses it to inform their 1.5 million annual visitors about estuarine systems. Their wetland-based educational programs include a student-tended nursery, a demonstration garden, a rain garden and a greenhouse filled with plants that act as a natural water filter to an attached striped bass tank.
Laura Bankey, the director of conservation at the National Aquarium, explained: “The marsh is a useful hands-on education tool for the National Aquarium, as well as a valuable refuge for wildlife in the city.”
It is home to a wide array of fish species, 250 bird species, mammals, reptiles and amphibians. The wetland also serves as an esteemed green space to the residents of Baltimore.
“I grew up just south of here on the Patapsco River," Bankey said. "I spent a lot of time outside as a kid and now that I have a daughter, I want the same for her. I want a place where she can play outside and walk barefoot.”
The wetland has overcome its fair share of obstacles; the original stone riprap built around wetland's culverts became problematic when the hard shoreline began to funnel debris and sediment into these culverts, blocking them from tidal flow and fish passage. In 2004, the wetland received second mitigation credits that led to the creation of a soft shoreline that now allows marine debris to accumulate in the marsh, which is cleaned up by an extensive network of volunteers.
Bankey credits a lot of the wetland’s success to volunteer efforts. “We have been hosting volunteer events since 1999,” Bankey said. “We had 179 volunteers come out here one day and pick up 15 tons of trash. We kept the bottles to show how many you can collect in one day,” she continued, pointing at a mountain of bottles, a visual that the National Aquarium uses to draw awareness to the issue of marine debris during volunteer and educational programs.
“Most of the trash that we pick out of the marsh is what we call 'convenience store' trash. Items like toys that are purchased, used once, then thrown away, or heavy plastics,” said Bankey. She pointed out that most of the lighter plastics, like plastic bags, tend get stuck farther upstream.
Bankey stressed the importance of community involvement and environmental education in the success of the Fort McHenry Urban Wetlands Restoration Project.
“We need to tackle the debris problem upstream, but it’s important to get people out here, hands-on, to show them how quickly it [debris] accumulates and what is possible with their help,” Bankey said.
Every spring, the fort recruits volunteers for an annual field day. Learn how to get involved.
Video produced by Steve Droter