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Brown Pelican

Pelecanus occidentalis

Brown pelicans are often seen perched on piers, pilings, boats and jetties around the Chesapeake Bay in summer. (Allan Paquette/Flickr)
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Brown pelicans are often seen perched on piers, pilings, boats and jetties around the Chesapeake Bay in summer. (Allan Paquette/Flickr)

The brown pelican is a large, dark-colored water bird that lives along the shores of the middle and lower Chesapeake Bay during summer.

Appearance:

  • Adults mostly dark all over the body
  • Chestnut and white on the neck
  • Pale yellow forehead
  • Juveniles have a brown head and back with whitish underparts
  • Large, grayish bill that is 9-15 inches long
  • Elastic throat pouch underneath the bill
  • Grayish-black legs and feet
  • Adults grow to about 50 inches with a wingspan of about 6 feet, and weigh 8-10 pounds

Habitat:

  • Lives along beaches and shorelines near shallow waters
  • Rarely found more than 20 miles out to sea or inland in fresh water
  • Often seen perched on piers, pilings, boats and jetties

Range:

  • Visits the middle and lower Chesapeake Bay in summer

Feeding:

  • Feeds primarily on fish such as menhaden, herring, sheepshead and silversides
  • Eats up to 4 pounds of fish per day
  • Hunts by flying high above the water to find a school of fish, then diving head-first into the water to catch its prey
  • After catching a fish underwater, pelicans hold it (and a lot of water) in their throat pouch. Once they surface, pelicans point their bill downward to allow the water to drain out and then tilt their bill upward to swallow the fish.

Predators:

  • No natural predators
  • Biggest enemies are humans, who have decimated pelican populations in the past

Flight:

  • Flocks fly in a long, straight line or a V formation. Pelicans synchronize their wingbeats and gliding.
  • Sometimes flies low over the water’s surface, almost touching it with its wingtips
  • Flies with its neck folded and head resting on its back

Voice:

  • Adults are silent, with a rare low croak
  • Nestlings squeal

Reproduction and Life Cycle:

  • Breeding typically begins at age 3-5 years
  • Nests in large colonies on the ground, in bushes or in the tops of trees
  • The male brings nest materials to the female, who builds the nest
  • Females usually lay 2-3 chalky white eggs between March and May
  • Parents share the responsibility of incubating the eggs and raising the young
  • Unlike most birds, pelicans incubate their eggs with their feet
  • The eggs hatch in about a month
  • Pelicans are born blind, featherless and entirely dependent on their parents
  • First flight usually occurs around 75 days old

Other Facts:

  • The brown pelican is the smallest pelican species in the world.
  • Brown pelicans have excellent eyesight, giving them the ability to spot schools of fish from high up in the air.
  • A pelican’s throat pouch can hold up to three times more than its stomach.
  • Brown pelicans are very strong swimmers. Young pelicans have been tracked swimming 3 miles per hour before they are even able to fly.
  • The use of the pesticide DDT in the mid-20th century caused populations of brown pelicans and other birds, including ospreys and bald eagles, to decline significantly. After DDT was banned in 1972, pelicans began to thrive again.

Sources and Additional Information:




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