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Chesapeake Bay News

Aug
05
2016

Photo of the Week: Growing healthy food for a healthy waterway

Miguel Sacedo harvests squash on Cottingham Farm in Easton, Maryland, at sunrise. Owned by environmental-lawyer-turned-farmer Cleo Braver, the 156-acre farm has a mission to produce sustainably grown, locally distributed and certified organic food.

Years ago, Braver was unaware of the impact certain agricultural techniques could have on local waterways. But after some research, she learned how the use of excessive pesticides and fertilizers was partially responsible for the poor water quality in Goldsborough Neck Creek, a tributary of the Miles River that runs behind her house. Braver’s interest in producing healthy food while minimizing her impact prompted her to make a change.

Now, Cottingham Farm is home to a variety of restoration efforts, including forest buffers that help trap nutrients and sediment from running into local waterways. The land is also home to an 18-acre wetland—a once-cornfield that was transformed into habitat for shorebirds and waterfowl with the help of Chesapeake Wildlife Heritage, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and the USDA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP). 

Learn more about Cottingham Farm, or learn about the effects of agriculture on the Chesapeake Bay.

 

Image by Keith Rutowski

Stephanie Smith's avatar
About Stephanie Smith - Stephanie is the Web Content Manager at the Chesapeake Bay Program. A native of the Midwest, she received her Bachelor’s in Professional Writing from Purdue University and Master of Science degree from the University of Michigan. Stephanie’s lifelong love of nature motivates her to explore solutions to environmental problems and teach others what they can do to help.



Aug
04
2016

Study warns of potentially corrosive groundwater in watershed states

Untreated groundwater across the Chesapeake Bay watershed has a high potential of being corrosive, according to a recent study from the U.S. Geological Survey. Left untreated, corrosive groundwater could leach lead and other metals from pipes and plumbing fixtures, potentially contaminating private drinking water supplies.

A recent study from the U.S. Geological Survey mapped the potential for groundwater corrosivity in groundwater wells in all 50 states, from "low" to "very high." (Map courtesy U.S. Geological Survey)

Public water supplies across the country are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). But private water supplies must be tested and maintained by homeowners. Approximately 44 million people in the U.S. get their drinking water from private wells—including 1.7 million in Virginia and 3 million in Pennsylvania. The study, which assessed 20,000 wells across the country from 1991 to 2015, shows groundwater in Maryland, Delaware and the District of Columbia has a ‘very high’ risk of being corrosive, while groundwater in Pennsylvania, New York, Virginia and West Virginia has a ‘high’ risk.

“This study is a good reminder that prudent, routine testing of the water, including its interaction with the water supply system, is an essential first step so homeowners and their families can confidently drink water from their faucets,” said Stephen Moulton II, assistant chief of operations for the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program, in a release.

Corrosive water is not dangerous to drink on its own, and potentially corrosive groundwater does not indicate the presence of lead or other metals in tap water. But corrosive water may react with pipes and other plumbing fixtures, leaching metals such as lead or copper into the water and potentially cause health-related problems. Signs of leaching caused by corrosive water may include bluish-green stains, small leaks in plumbing fixtures or a metallic taste to the water.

The report, “Assessing the Potential Corrosivity of U.S. Groundwater,” can be found online.



Aug
03
2016

Photo Essay: Seen from above, humans and nature intertwine along the Chesapeake Bay

The Bird River flows into the Gunpowder River in Baltimore County, Maryland, on June 27, 2016. The 26-square-mile Bird River watershed is about one-third forested land and one-fifth agricultural land. It received Baltimore County's first comprehensive watershed plan in 1995 to address water quality issues caused by unstable stream channels, impervious surfaces, pollutants, mining, agriculture and other threats. Today, completed stream restoration along the mainstem and tributaries of Bird River total five miles.

Flying low over the Chesapeake Bay, it’s not actually the water that draws your attention—except for the sporadic glint of sunlight reflected off of its calm surface. Instead, it’s the patchwork landscape and the rate at which a quiet farm field gives way to grids of streets or wriggling stretches of wetlands.

And there’s another reason to pay attention to all that land: because the Chesapeake Bay is so shallow—its average depth is just 21 feet—and because so much land area feeds into it, the health of the Bay depends greatly on how the land is treated.

With the support of a volunteer pilot from the nonprofit organization LightHawk, we took a look around the northern edges of the Chesapeake Bay to see some of the ways the land has been shaped by the people living there.

The Susquehanna River flows south past Conowingo Dam, toward Havre de Grace, Maryland. Conowingo Dam has long trapped sediment runoff originating from farms and other sources upstream. But as the dam nears 100 years of age, its capacity for trapping sediment is now at equilibrium, meaning it can only trap sediment in the short-term, after heavy storms scour away some of the buildup behind the dam.

Maryland Route 301, known as Blue Star Memorial Highway, runs toward Queenstown, Maryland. An effort by the Eastern Shoreway Alliance (ESA) to get the stretch of highway designated a scenic byway stalled ten years ago. In the group's proposal, quoted in the Chestertown Spy news website, the ESA describes the area surrounding 301 as a "slowly woven tapestry of exceptionally rich farm fields and pastures, natural woodlands and meadows, tidal estuaries and marshes.”

Skipton Creek flows west into the Wye River in Talbot County, Maryland. The Wye River received a "C" grade overall in the Midshore Riverkeeper Conservancy's 2015 report card—the same grade as in 2014—with phosphorus pollution in the "D" to "D-" range.

A patch of forest is shaped by the manicured fields surrounding it near the Elk River in Cecil County, Maryland. As trees have been replaced with roads, buildings, farms and houses, 60 percent of the Chesapeake Bay watershed’s forests have been divided into disconnected fragments. This increases the amount of sun-exposed forest "edge"—where fields and forest meet—that favors invasive species and large populations of deer.

A recently planted riparian forest buffer borders an agricultural field along Emory Creek, which flows into the Corsica River in Queen Anne's County, Maryland. A lack of buffers is a major challenge for the restoration of the Corsica, according to the river's Watershed Restoration Action Strategy (WRAS) completed in 2004.

Chicken barns rise from a farm in Queen Anne's County, Maryland. Manure accounts for 19 percent of the nitrogen and 26 percent of the phosphorus entering the Chesapeake Bay, according to a 2010 report by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Poultry, corn, and soybeans are the dominant agriculture on the Eastern Shore currently, but industries have gone through boom-bust cycles on the Delmarva Peninsula since the early 1600s. Retirees, commuters and tourists have increased their footprint since travel became easier with opening of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge in 1952.

Box stores and townhouses spread through a suburban area of Easton, Maryland. The opening of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge in 1952 made travel to the Eastern Shore more convenient, literally paving the way for rapid population growth in the 1990s and early 2000s. The town of Easton grew by over one third between 1990 and 2003.

The 13.6-megawatt Wye Mills solar project features over 40,000 solar panels on 97 acres in Queen Anne's County, Maryland. The project, to be online in 2016, is set to deliver energy to Johns Hopkins University, which chose the remote site because of a lack of space near its campus in Baltimore.

Baltimore's Inner Harbor is seen at the far left at the end of the northwest branch of the Patapsco River, which receives water from the mouth of Jones Falls. The Inner Harbor and tidal Patapsco River have received failing water quality grades for years, according to a report card published by the Healthy Harbor Initiative for the Waterfront Partnership of Baltimore.

Riprap and bulkheads harden a shoreline along Edgemere, Maryland, near North Point State Park in Baltimore County. Hardened shorelines eliminate the shallow habitat required by many of the small fish and invertebrates that trophy fish like striped bass eat, and can also make it hard for underwater grasses to take root in the turbulent waves reflected off the hard surface.

Patterson Park offers the only green space to much of the surrounding neighborhoods in Baltimore.

Hart-Miller Island State Park lies east of Baltimore in the Chesapeake Bay. The 1,100-acre island began as two distinct islands joined by dredged material in a restoration project overseen by Maryland Environmental Service. In 2016, the 300-acre south cell of the island opened to the public for the first time since the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers began dredging in 1981.

Wetlands flow into the Chesapeake Bay near the mouth of the Elk River in Cecil County, Maryland. Aberdeen Proving Ground, northeast of Baltimore, is visible in the distance. Shoreline development poses a major threat to wetland, but protected areas like Elk Neck State Park help protect portions of these habitats from destruction.

To view more photos, visit the Chesapeake Bay Program's Flickr page

Photographs and text by Will Parson

Will Parson's avatar
About Will Parson - Will is the Multimedia Specialist for the Chesapeake Bay Program. A native of Bakersfield, California, he acquired an interest in photojournalism while studying ecology and evolution at University of California, San Diego. He pursued stories about water and culture as a graduate student at Ohio University's School of Visual Communication, and as an intern at several newspapers in New England before landing in Maryland.



Aug
02
2016

Oyster populations show improvement in Maryland sanctuaries, study finds

Oyster populations throughout Maryland’s portion of the Chesapeake Bay have generally improved over the past decade, according to a report from the state’s Department of Natural Resources (DNR). But while oysters within state-designated sanctuaries have continued to thrive in recent years, populations in areas open to harvest have declined.

Three types of oyster management areas are designated in Maryland: active aquaculture, or oyster farming; sanctuaries, where harvesting is not allowed; and Public Shellfish Fishery Areas, or PSFAs, which are open to public harvesting.

Low disease mortality combined with successful reproductive seasons in 2010 and 2012 helped boost populations of the Bay’s iconic bivalve in both fished and sanctuary areas. But as oyster biomass in sanctuaries continued to increase through 2014 and 2015, populations in areas open to fishing declined in those years. According to the report, this is likely due to the harvest of those oysters born in 2010 and 2012—inside the sanctuaries, these older oysters were continuing to grow and reproduce.

In 2010, Maryland adopted an updated oyster management plan, expanding the range of sanctuaries and designating areas to remain open to harvest. The study marks the first evaluation in DNR’s commitment to review the plan’s effectiveness every five years and to propose adjustments if necessary. But the report suggests it’s too early to conclude that oyster restoration efforts have been successful.

“Given the complexity of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem, five years has not been long enough to show how oyster populations respond to the absence of harvest,” the report states. Still, the report recommends making adjustments to current sanctuary boundaries, while continuing to maintain sanctuaries in 20 to 30 percent of the Maryland portion of the Bay.

The State Oyster Advisory Commission, a 23-member group created to advise DNR on oyster-related matters, is expected to review the report and make recommendations on the state’s oyster restoration efforts, including postponed work in the Tred Avon River.

The report is available on the Maryland Department of Natural Resources website.



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