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Bay Blog: Patapsco River

Aug
03
2016

Photo Essay: Seen from above, humans and nature intertwine along the Chesapeake Bay

The Bird River flows into the Gunpowder River in Baltimore County, Maryland, on June 27, 2016. The 26-square-mile Bird River watershed is about one-third forested land and one-fifth agricultural land. It received Baltimore County's first comprehensive watershed plan in 1995 to address water quality issues caused by unstable stream channels, impervious surfaces, pollutants, mining, agriculture and other threats. Today, completed stream restoration along the mainstem and tributaries of Bird River total five miles.

Flying low over the Chesapeake Bay, it’s not actually the water that draws your attention—except for the sporadic glint of sunlight reflected off of its calm surface. Instead, it’s the patchwork landscape and the rate at which a quiet farm field gives way to grids of streets or wriggling stretches of wetlands.

And there’s another reason to pay attention to all that land: because the Chesapeake Bay is so shallow—its average depth is just 21 feet—and because so much land area feeds into it, the health of the Bay depends greatly on how the land is treated.

With the support of a volunteer pilot from the nonprofit organization LightHawk, we took a look around the northern edges of the Chesapeake Bay to see some of the ways the land has been shaped by the people living there.

The Susquehanna River flows south past Conowingo Dam, toward Havre de Grace, Maryland. Conowingo Dam has long trapped sediment runoff originating from farms and other sources upstream. But as the dam nears 100 years of age, its capacity for trapping sediment is now at equilibrium, meaning it can only trap sediment in the short-term, after heavy storms scour away some of the buildup behind the dam.

Maryland Route 301, known as Blue Star Memorial Highway, runs toward Queenstown, Maryland. An effort by the Eastern Shoreway Alliance (ESA) to get the stretch of highway designated a scenic byway stalled ten years ago. In the group's proposal, quoted in the Chestertown Spy news website, the ESA describes the area surrounding 301 as a "slowly woven tapestry of exceptionally rich farm fields and pastures, natural woodlands and meadows, tidal estuaries and marshes.”

Skipton Creek flows west into the Wye River in Talbot County, Maryland. The Wye River received a "C" grade overall in the Midshore Riverkeeper Conservancy's 2015 report card—the same grade as in 2014—with phosphorus pollution in the "D" to "D-" range.

A patch of forest is shaped by the manicured fields surrounding it near the Elk River in Cecil County, Maryland. As trees have been replaced with roads, buildings, farms and houses, 60 percent of the Chesapeake Bay watershed’s forests have been divided into disconnected fragments. This increases the amount of sun-exposed forest "edge"—where fields and forest meet—that favors invasive species and large populations of deer.

A recently planted riparian forest buffer borders an agricultural field along Emory Creek, which flows into the Corsica River in Queen Anne's County, Maryland. A lack of buffers is a major challenge for the restoration of the Corsica, according to the river's Watershed Restoration Action Strategy (WRAS) completed in 2004.

Chicken barns rise from a farm in Queen Anne's County, Maryland. Manure accounts for 19 percent of the nitrogen and 26 percent of the phosphorus entering the Chesapeake Bay, according to a 2010 report by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Poultry, corn, and soybeans are the dominant agriculture on the Eastern Shore currently, but industries have gone through boom-bust cycles on the Delmarva Peninsula since the early 1600s. Retirees, commuters and tourists have increased their footprint since travel became easier with opening of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge in 1952.

Box stores and townhouses spread through a suburban area of Easton, Maryland. The opening of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge in 1952 made travel to the Eastern Shore more convenient, literally paving the way for rapid population growth in the 1990s and early 2000s. The town of Easton grew by over one third between 1990 and 2003.

The 13.6-megawatt Wye Mills solar project features over 40,000 solar panels on 97 acres in Queen Anne's County, Maryland. The project, to be online in 2016, is set to deliver energy to Johns Hopkins University, which chose the remote site because of a lack of space near its campus in Baltimore.

Baltimore's Inner Harbor is seen at the far left at the end of the northwest branch of the Patapsco River, which receives water from the mouth of Jones Falls. The Inner Harbor and tidal Patapsco River have received failing water quality grades for years, according to a report card published by the Healthy Harbor Initiative for the Waterfront Partnership of Baltimore.

Riprap and bulkheads harden a shoreline along Edgemere, Maryland, near North Point State Park in Baltimore County. Hardened shorelines eliminate the shallow habitat required by many of the small fish and invertebrates that trophy fish like striped bass eat, and can also make it hard for underwater grasses to take root in the turbulent waves reflected off the hard surface.

Patterson Park offers the only green space to much of the surrounding neighborhoods in Baltimore.

Hart-Miller Island State Park lies east of Baltimore in the Chesapeake Bay. The 1,100-acre island began as two distinct islands joined by dredged material in a restoration project overseen by Maryland Environmental Service. In 2016, the 300-acre south cell of the island opened to the public for the first time since the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers began dredging in 1981.

Wetlands flow into the Chesapeake Bay near the mouth of the Elk River in Cecil County, Maryland. Aberdeen Proving Ground, northeast of Baltimore, is visible in the distance. Shoreline development poses a major threat to wetland, but protected areas like Elk Neck State Park help protect portions of these habitats from destruction.

To view more photos, visit the Chesapeake Bay Program's Flickr page

Photographs and text by Will Parson

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About Will Parson - Will is the Multimedia Specialist for the Chesapeake Bay Program. A native of Bakersfield, California, he acquired an interest in photojournalism while studying ecology and evolution at University of California, San Diego. He pursued stories about water and culture as a graduate student at Ohio University's School of Visual Communication, and as an intern at several newspapers in New England before landing in Maryland.



Jul
07
2015

From the Field: Chesapeake Bay Interpretive Buoy System

Warm weather is upon us, and that means people will be taking to the water to escape from the heat. Soon enough, the Chesapeake Bay will be dotted with bobbing watercrafts of all shapes and sizes. For those recreating on the Bay, the bright yellow Chesapeake Bay Interpretive Buoy System (CBIBS) markers may be a familiar sight, but they serve as much more than eye-catching aquatic beacons: they provide key insights into the health and safety conditions of the Bay.

The first buoys were deployed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Chesapeake Bay Office in 2007—marking 10 locations along the Captain John Smith Chesapeake Historic Trail—and have been collecting and transmitting real-time water quality and atmospheric data ever since. “It’s [the buoy system] interpretive because we work with the National Park Service as a partner to interpret John Smith’s trail, so there is a bit of a historical aspect to it,” said Katie Kirk, Senior Buoy Specialist at Earth Resources Technology, a contractor that supplies support staff and assistance to NOAA and other government agencies.

“Our main mission is to keep the 10 buoys that we have up and alive and transmitting as often as we can and deliver the data to as many users as we can,” said Kirk in reference to her and the field team’s work. Routine maintenance and repairs on the buoy fleet presents a swath of challenges that keeps the small team of CBIBS buoy technicians busy year-round.

Senior buoy specialist Katie Kirk works on buoy electronics inside a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA) warehouse in Annapolis, Md., on March 31. Kirk helps maintain 10 buoys that comprise the Chesapeake Bay Interpretive Buoy System (CBIBS), which collects data and marks locations on the Captain John Smith Chesapeake Historic Trail.

The life of a CBIBS buoy technician differs from day-to-day and can be a physically demanding profession. Some days are spent in their Annapolis, Md., warehouse—affectionately referred to as the ‘buoy spa’—calibrating instruments, cleaning buoys, swapping out parts and working with computer systems. Other times, the team braves the wind, waves and elements to do onsite repairs and buoy maintenance.

As the summer and fall wind down and cold weather approaches, the team removes the three northernmost buoys from the Patapsco, Susquehanna and Upper Potomac rivers before freezing conditions set in to prevent ice damage. But this winter, the southern buoys succumbed to the frigid conditions: wind gusts exceeding 50 miles-per-hour and below-freezing water temperatures caused ice from sea spray to accumulate on and topple over the buoys, something the CBIBS team had never seen before. “The buoys that were off location tipped over, cracked and no longer had power, so we couldn’t track them on the GPS to figure out where they were. That was a pretty intense time trying to figure out where the buoys had moved to and how we could get to them,” explained Kirk.

Kirk and buoy technical specialist Nikiforos Delatolas finish deploying a buoy in the mouth of the Susquehanna River in Havre de Grace, Md., on April 10.

After winter, the team’s short-term goals were to get all of the buoys repaired, online and transmitting data. With that completed, Kirk is now striving to see the data being analyzed and produced in scientific papers. “It’s been done before, but I want to get back to that and try to reach out to more teachers and researchers and see if they want more buoys or buoys in different locations,” Kirk said. “Then we can take the time and think about how our system reaches out to those users, what they need from us and what they would prefer.”

While many people accessing the data are local sailors and kayakers looking for information on the wind speed, currents, wave heights and local conditions before venturing out on the water, educators also integrate the data into their curriculum. Utilizing the data for educational purposes is of utmost importance to NOAA, so much so that they have an entire education team dedicated to reaching out to local schools to demonstrate how the CBIBS data can be used in the classroom.

A CBIBS buoy floats in the mouth of the Susquehanna River after Kirk and Delatolas finished deploying sensors on April 10.

In addition to live reporting of local water and weather conditions, the buoy data provides a snapshot into what is happening around the Bay, demonstrating in a quantitative way how each part of the ecosystem is interrelated. Information on water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen can help researchers uncover important linkages between water quality and blue crab stocks, fish populations, bay grass abundance and more.

Despite the many challenges that the buoy technicians face, Kirk and her team exude an air of passion and commitment to maintaining the instruments that provide the most up-to-date information about the state of the Bay, all in the name of presenting the best science. For those working to restore the estuary and those interested in learning about the issues the Bay faces, the data can serve as a useful tool.

“I think we have an amazing opportunity to protect this watershed and this bay,” said Kirk. “It goes back to resources and taking pride in where you live. This is your home, why wouldn’t you protect it?”

All of the data is free to the public and can be accessed online, by phone at (877) 286-9229 and via a mobile app

To view more photos, visit the Chesapeake Bay Program’s Flickr page.

Video and images by Will Parson
Text by Jenna Valente

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About Jenna Valente - Jenna developed a passion for conservation through her outdoorsy nature and upbringing in Hawaii, Washington State and Maine. A graduate of Virginia Tech's Executive Master of Natural Resources program and University of Maine's School of Communication and Journalism, she welcomes any opportunity to educate the public about the importance of caring for the environment.



Aug
31
2014

Letter from Leadership: Sister waterways

The history of the Anacostia and Patapsco rivers is similar to that of countless other mid-Atlantic waterways. At one time, these rivers served as sources of power that fueled industrialization and as sewer lines that removed human and industrial wastes from urban areas. Over time, these rivers lost their identities as “natural resources” and the values placed on them for food and spiritual renewal. 

Image courtesy eutrophication&hypoxia/Flickr

Rivers were our early highways, transporting people and goods from one place to another. They bound communities together, giving people a common experience. Earlier this month, community representatives, academics and activists came together at the Smithsonian Institution’s Anacostia Community Museum to share their experiences in trying to reclaim the original values of these resources for local residents.

Image courtesy Mr. T in DC/Flickr

Historian and University of Maryland Eastern Shore Professor Emeritus John Wennersten has studied and written about the Anacostia River for decades. At this talk, he discussed the ethical responsibility we have to remedy the environmental burdens that have been disproportionately placed on low-income and minority communities. Indeed, restoring urban waterways is an important step in this process. Both the Anacostia and Patapsco rivers have legacies of industrial development and pollution, and Dan Smith with the Anacostia Watershed Society and Joe Stewart with the Baltimore Historical Society described efforts to engage the community in reclaiming and restoring waterfronts. As part of this work, Christina Bradley from Baltimore’s Parks & People Foundation described efforts to improve the grounds of city schools. By replacing pavement with plants, her organization gives students, teachers and community members the opportunity to experience the value of urban green space. 

There is power in encouraging students to experience the environment. Dennis Chestnut, Director of Groundwork Anacostia River DC, has returned to the neighborhoods of his childhood to reconnect both youth and adult residents to their river. And Tony Thomas, the museum’s “Science Guy,” framed the evening’s discussion by describing his experience as a science teacher and the thrill he would feel when the “light bulb” went on for one of his students to illuminate a concept or idea.

Image courtesy Mr. T in DC/Flickr

The turnout for this event was at a disadvantage, thanks to beautiful weather and a Washington Nationals baseball game. But for those who spoke and those who attended, it offered a valuable time to share our experiences and learn from each other, driven by a common passion to reclaim, reconnect and restore our communities and our natural resources. It was a wonderful thing to witness.

Note: The opinions expressed above are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect U.S. EPA policy endorsement or action.

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About Nick DiPasquale - Nick has nearly 30 years of public policy and environmental management experience in both the public and private sectors. He previously served as Deputy Secretary in the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Director of the Environmental Management Center for the Brandywine Conservancy in Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania and as Secretary of the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control.



Jul
21
2014

Anacostia, Patapsco restoration projects receive funding

Four organizations in the Chesapeake Bay watershed will receive more than $230,000 to restore portions of the Anacostia and Patapsco rivers.

Image courtesy Tommy Wells/Flickr

In the District of Columbia, two organizations will connect students to the Anacostia in an effort to boost local stewardship. Living Classrooms of the National Capital Region will put third and fifth graders onto canoes, kayaks and an educational vessel, while the Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum will turn at-risk high school students into citizen scientists to monitor water quality along Watts Branch.

In College Park, the University of Maryland will design low-impact development solutions to lower the amount of polluted stormwater running off of schools and into the Anacostia. And in Baltimore, the University of Baltimore will monitor fecal bacteria in a portion of a Patapsco River tributary to help two blue collar neighborhoods reduce pet waste and prioritize infrastructure repairs.

Image courtesy Zach Karpinski/Flickr

The funding has been granted through the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Urban Waters Small Grants program, which supports the restoration of urban rivers and streams in 18 geographic regions.

Healthy and accessible urban waters can improve economic, educational, recreational and social opportunities in nearby communities.

“People, buildings and businesses are all concentrated in urban areas, making it even more important to protect waterways from pollution,” said EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy in a media release. “These communities will receive grants, allowing them to help turn these waterways into centerpieces of urban renewal, spurring economic development and job creation.”

In addition to the four projects inside the Bay watershed, the Urban Waters Small Grants program will fund 32 projects in 15 other states and Puerto Rico.

Learn more.



Aug
28
2013

Patapsco River dam removal will restore miles of fish passage

More than 40 miles of the Patapsco River will be opened to the annual migrations of herring, alewife and American shad once the waterway’s lowermost dam is removed.

Bloede Dam has blocked the passage of migratory fish for close to a century. It has also posed a public safety hazard, creating strong currents that have killed a number of swimmers. Its removal is the next step in the Patapsco River Restoration Project, and will be funded by a $3.57 million grant from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)’s Restoration Center to American Rivers.

American Rivers has worked on the Patapsco project for the past five years with NOAA, the Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and the Friends of the Patapsco Valley State Park. The river’s Union and Simkins dams were removed in 2010 and 2011 in order to create better habitat for fish and a safer swimming hole for people.

“Removing one dam can make a major difference in the health of a river and its fisheries. But removing multiple dams… is really a game-changer,” said Serena McClain, director of river restoration at American Rivers, in a media release.

The Chesapeake Bay Program tracks the opening of fish passage as an indicator of Chesapeake Bay health, and has achieved 91 percent of its goal to open more than 2,800 miles of fish passage by 2014. Because dams, culverts and other barriers can disrupt the natural flow of rivers, their removal can mean a boost in habitat, a drop in pollution and improved protection from flooding.

Learn more about the removal of Bloede Dam.



Jun
24
2011

Federal government pledges to revitalize Anacostia, Patapsco rivers through new partnership

Eleven federal agencies, including the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of the Interior and the Department of Agriculture, have joined together in a new initiative to revitalize the Anacostia and Patapsco rivers.

The Urban Waters Federal Partnership will focus on the two Chesapeake Bay region rivers, as well as five other waterways throughout the United States, as pilot locations for the new initiative. The partnership’s goal is to help underserved communities access and benefit from their local waterways.

Urban waterways like the Anacostia and Patapsco rivers provide local residents with drinking water and opportunities for fishing, boating and swimming. Cleaning up and restoring these rivers is essential to protecting human health, improving quality of life, and connecting people to their local natural areas.

For more information, visit www.urbanwaters.gov.



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