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Discover the Chesapeake

The Chesapeake Bay - the largest estuary in the United States - is an incredibly complex ecosystem that includes important habitats and food webs. The Bay and its rivers, wetlands and forests provide homes, food and protection for diverse groups of animals and plants. Fish of all types and sizes either live in the Bay and its tributaries year-round or visit its waters as they migrate along the East Coast.

Bay 101

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Bay 101: Monitoring and Modeling the Chesapeake Bay

Science provides tools that allow communities to make the best decisions for water quality locally and downstream

The Chesapeake Bay Watershed

A watershed is an area of land that drains to a particular river, lake, bay or other body of water. Watersheds are sometimes called “basins” or "drainage basins."

We all live in a watershed. Some watersheds, like that of your local stream or creek, are small. Others, like the Chesapeake Bay watershed, are very large. Learn more about the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

The Bay Ecosystem

An ecosystem is a complex set of relationships among living and non-living things. Air, water, soil, sunlight, plants and animals – including humans – make up an ecosystem. Ecosystems can be as tiny as a patch of dirt in your backyard, or as large as the entire Chesapeake Bay watershed.

The Bay Ecosystem

The Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States, is an extremely productive and complex ecosystem. The Bay ecosystem consists of the Bay itself, its local rivers and streams, and all the plants and animals it supports. Learn more about the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem.

Critter Of The Month

Spotted Sandpiper
Actitis macularius

The spotted sandpiper is a medium-sized shorebird that can be found throughout the Chesapeake region during the summer.

Chesapeake History

2014

2014
  • The Chesapeake Executive Council signs the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Agreement, which contains goals and outcomes that will guide conservation and restoration across the watershed. For the first time, the Bay’s headwater states commit to those goals that reach beyond water quality.

2013

2013
  • A federal judge rules that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can set pollution limits for the Chesapeake Bay, thus upholding the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) that was challenged in court in 2011.

2012

2012
  • Harris Creek becomes the first target of the oyster restoration goals set forth in the Chesapeake Bay Executive Order: to restore oyster populations in 20 Bay tributaries by 2025. In this Choptank River tributary, existing reefs will be studied, new bars will be built and spat-on-shell will be planted.

2011

2011
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issues a new Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Permit to the District of Columbia. It is the first of its kind to incorporate green infrastructure into its requirements, setting a national model for stormwater management.

2010

2010
  • Maryland, Virginia and New York ban phosphates in dishwasher detergent to lower phosphorous pollution in local waterways.
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency establishes the Total Maximum Daily Load to limit the amount of pollutants that can enter the Chesapeake Bay.
  • The Bay Program launches ChesapeakeStat to improve communication about restoration goals, progress and funding.

Bay FAQ


What is an airshed?


Are there invasive species in the Chesapeake Bay watershed?


What is the deepest part of the Chesapeake Bay?


How deep is the Chesapeake Bay?


What are chemical contaminants?


What is a crab jubilee?


Which states are in the Chesapeake Bay watershed?


What is stormwater runoff?


Do blue crabs put on weight before winter hibernation?


How does temperature affect the growth of underwater grasses?

See more FAQs.

Bay Glossary

Cilia

Tiny, projecting “hairs” on a cell or microscopic organism that beat rhythmically to aid in movement.

Bay jurisdictions

Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia and the District of Columbia.

Urban forest

The system of trees and associated plants that grow in small groups or under forest conditions on public and private lands in cities, suburbs and towns. This includes the approximately 74.4 billion trees in the U.S. that are located in parks, along streets and around private homes and businesses.

Biological diversity

The variety of life in all forms, levels and combinations, including ecosystem diversity, species diversity and genetic diversity.

Effluent

Discharge of liquid waste from a wastewater treatment facility, factory or industry to a local waterbody.

Invertebrate

An animal that lacks a backbone. Aquatic invertebrates include squids, shrimps, crabs, mollusks and sea stars.

Pharmaceuticals

Compounds manufactured for use as medicinal drugs.

Freshet

An increase of water flow into the Bay during late winter or spring due to increased precipitation and snow melt in the watershed.

See more bay terms.

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