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Discover the Chesapeake

The Chesapeake Bay - the largest estuary in the United States - is an incredibly complex ecosystem that includes important habitats and food webs. The Bay and its rivers, wetlands and forests provide homes, food and protection for diverse groups of animals and plants. Fish of all types and sizes either live in the Bay and its tributaries year-round or visit its waters as they migrate along the East Coast.

Bay 101

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Bay 101: Wetlands

Wetlands are important wildlife habitat that also help improve water quality downstream

The Chesapeake Bay Watershed

A watershed is an area of land that drains to a particular river, lake, bay or other body of water. Watersheds are sometimes called “basins” or "drainage basins."

We all live in a watershed. Some watersheds, like that of your local stream or creek, are small. Others, like the Chesapeake Bay watershed, are very large. Learn more about the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

The Bay Ecosystem

An ecosystem is a complex set of relationships among living and non-living things. Air, water, soil, sunlight, plants and animals – including humans – make up an ecosystem. Ecosystems can be as tiny as a patch of dirt in your backyard, or as large as the entire Chesapeake Bay watershed.

The Bay Ecosystem

The Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States, is an extremely productive and complex ecosystem. The Bay ecosystem consists of the Bay itself, its local rivers and streams, and all the plants and animals it supports. Learn more about the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem.

Critter Of The Month

Royal Tern
Thalasseus maximus

The royal tern is a large seabird with a thick orange bill. It can be found along Chesapeake coastal beaches during its breeding season.

Chesapeake History

2014

2014
  • The Chesapeake Executive Council signs the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Agreement, which contains goals and outcomes that will guide conservation and restoration across the watershed. For the first time, the Bay’s headwater states commit to those goals that reach beyond water quality.

2013

2013
  • A federal judge rules that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can set pollution limits for the Chesapeake Bay, thus upholding the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) that was challenged in court in 2011.

2012

2012
  • Harris Creek becomes the first target of the oyster restoration goals set forth in the Chesapeake Bay Executive Order: to restore oyster populations in 20 Bay tributaries by 2025. In this Choptank River tributary, existing reefs will be studied, new bars will be built and spat-on-shell will be planted.

2011

2011
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issues a new Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Permit to the District of Columbia. It is the first of its kind to incorporate green infrastructure into its requirements, setting a national model for stormwater management.

2010

2010
  • Maryland, Virginia and New York ban phosphates in dishwasher detergent to lower phosphorous pollution in local waterways.
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency establishes the Total Maximum Daily Load to limit the amount of pollutants that can enter the Chesapeake Bay.
  • The Bay Program launches ChesapeakeStat to improve communication about restoration goals, progress and funding.

Bay FAQ


What is a fish consumption advisory?


What is dissolved oxygen?


What is a tributary?


Can animals swim out of the dead zone to safety?


Why does the Chesapeake Bay need plankton?


What do blue crabs eat?


What is the deepest part of the Chesapeake Bay?


How do you measure salinity?


Why are estuaries important?


What are impervious surfaces?

See more FAQs.

Bay Glossary

Diversity

An ecological measure of the variety of organisms present in a habitat.

Clean Water Act

Common name for the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Its purpose is to “restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the nation’s waters,” whether on public or private land. It authorizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set water quality criteria for states to use to establish water quality standards.

Dermo

An oyster disease caused by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus, which many Chesapeake Bay oysters contract in their second year of life.

Sustainability

Maintaining an ecological balance by avoiding depletion of natural resources.

Coliform bacteria

A group of bacteria primarily found in human and animal intestines and wastes. Coliform bacteria (such as E. coli) are widely used as an indicator of the presence of such wastes in water.

Trend analysis

A formal statistical process used to determine the presence or absence of changes in measures of water quality over time or a geographic area.

Anadromous fish

Fish that spend their adult lives in salt water but must migrate to freshwater tributaries to spawn. For example, Atlantic sturgeon and American shad are both anadromous fish.

Copepods

Small, abundant planktonic crustaceans that are important food for fish.

See more bay terms.

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