This small, well-camouflaged owl can be found year-round throughout forested areas of the Bay watershed.
Eastern screech-owls are small, from 6 to 10 inches in length with a wingspan of 19 to 24 inches. As with many owls, females are generally larger than males. They come in two distinct color morphs: gray and rufous (reddish-brown). Whatever color they are, they are patterned with bands and spots that act to camouflage them with tree bark. They have bold streaking on their breasts and "ear" tufts on either side of their head.
Eastern screech-owls do not migrate and are found in virtually all kinds of habitats below a 5,000-foot elevation. They are cavity nesters and are generally found in wooded areas but they can also adjust to human presence and do well in urban and suburban areas. Since they do not build their own nesting cavities, they often use artificial bird boxes for nesting.
They are found throughout much of eastern North America, including the entire Bay watershed. Their range stretches from the Rocky Mountains eastwards to the Atlantic coast and from southern Canada down to Florida and southern Texas.
The Eastern screech-owl’s diet includes insects, invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles such as moths, katydids, crayfish, earthworms, tadpoles, frogs and lizards. They eat many kinds of mammals, including rats, mice, squirrels, moles and rabbits. Small birds taken as prey include flycatchers, swallows, thrushes, waxwings and finches, as well as larger species such as jays, grouse, doves, shorebirds and woodpeckers.
These owls have excellent hearing as can often capture prey hidden under leaves. When prey is plentiful, eastern screech-owls catch prey in their nests for up to four days.
Eastern screech-owls are preyed on as adults and fledglings by larger owls, hawks and other eastern screech-owls. Eggs and nestlings may be taken by black rat snakes, Virginia opossums, raccoons and ringtails.
Most flights are short (less than 75 feet). When traveling between perches, eastern screech-owls often drop, fly straight, and then rise again in a U-shaped pattern.
The owl’s call is a mournful whinny or wail; tremulous, descending in pitch. Sometimes it is a series on a single pitch.Eastern Screech-owl courtesy of Cody Porter, Michigan State Avian Vocalization Center
Eastern screech-owls form stable pairs—usually one male with one female, but occasionally one male with two females. Breeding occurs once a year from February through March. The female lays her eggs on whatever debris is at the bottom of her nesting cavity, such as wood-chips, twigs or the feathers and droppings from a previous year’s nest (females re-use successful nesting sites).
Eastern screech-owl females incubate the eggs and brood the young. Males feed females and guard nest cavities during incubation and brooding. Clutches usually contain 2 to 6 eggs with 27 to 34 days of incubation. The young leave the nest at about 28 days old and remain with the parents until they are 8 to 10 weeks old. Both parents feed the young during this period. It is estimated that only 30 to 50 percent of young from one year survive into the next year.