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Water Chestnut

Trapa natans

Water chestnut has triangular or diamond-shaped leaves that form rosettes that float on the water's surface.
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Water chestnut has triangular or diamond-shaped leaves that form rosettes that float on the water's surface.

Water chestnut is an invasive aquatic plant with rosettes of triangular leaves that float on the water’s surface. It grows in the Bird and Sassafras rivers, which are tributaries of the upper Chesapeake Bay.

Appearance:

  • Triangular or diamond-shaped leaves forming rosettes that float on the water’s surface
  • Leaves have teeth along the edges, a shiny upper side and fine hairs underneath
  • Thread-like leaves grow alternately along the submerged part of the stem
  • Tiny, white flowers that bloom in June-July
  • Hard, greenish-brown fruits with four sharp spikes are attached to the plant’s underside in spring and early summer
  • Can float freely or be rooted to bottom sediments

Habitat:

  • Found in slow-moving fresh and brackish rivers
  • Grows in muddy, fine-grained sediments

Range:

  • Grows in Maryland’s Bird and Sassafras rivers

Reproduction and Life Cycle:

  • Can reproduce both sexually and asexually
  • Sexual reproduction takes place in early summer. After being fertilized, female flowers mature into fruit-bearing shoots. The shoots eventually break off, releasing their seeds as they float on the surface.
  • Asexual reproduction takes place when the rhizome grows and winter buds called turions form

Other Facts:

  • It is believed that water chestnut was introduced in the mid-1800s for ornamental use in ponds
  • Water chestnut is considered to be invasive because it blocks sunlight from reaching bay grasses and can impede boat navigation. The plant’s sharp, spiky fruits are dangerous to humans swimming or walking on beaches.

Sources and Additional Information:




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