The oyster toadfish's scaleless, flattened body grows to about 12 inches in length. It has an olive-brown back with dark blotches or bars, and a pale belly. Fleshy flaps or “whiskers” appear on its cheeks and jaws. Big, bulging eyes rest on the top of its large, flat head. Its broad mouth is filled with strong, rounded teeth.


The oyster toadfish feeds mostly on small crabs and other crustaceans but will also eat mollusks and small fish.


Toadfish may be eaten by sharks. They protect themselves from predators with their strong jaws and spiny dorsal fin, and will hide from predators within oyster reefs, rocky areas and other debris.


Spawning males make a distinctive “foghorn” call to attract a mate.

Reproduction and Life Cycle

Spawning occurs in April through October in the Bay’s shallows. Males make a nest in a dark, secluded location, then call for a female mate. The female lays sticky eggs on the top of the nest, then leaves. Oyster toadfish eggs measure about one-fifth of an inch in diameter – the largest eggs of any fish in the Bay.

The male protects the eggs and keeps the nest clean by using his fins to fan out debris. After about one month, the eggs hatch. The tadpole-like young remain attached to the nest by a yolk. Once the yolk is fully absorbed, the male guards the young toadlets for a few more weeks, although they are free to swim in and out of the nest.

Did You Know?

  • An oyster toadfish will quickly take an angler's bait. But be wary of catching this fish — it has powerful, snapping jaws and sharp spines on its dorsal fin.
  • The hardy oyster toadfish can tolerate litter and polluted water, and can survive out of water for a lengthy period of time.

Sources and Additional Information