Adults can grow up to 30 inches long, and females grow larger than males. Its elongate body is yellowish green, while its belly is off-white. A dark stripe runs along the side of its body, but this is sometimes absent in older fish. The lower jaw of its large mouth extends well past its eye.
Juveniles consume zooplankton, insects and small fish. Adults feed on insects, fish and crayfish, with sunfish often being their prey of choice. Fish often feed in the early morning and late evening, near vegetation growing in shallow waters.
Predators include yellow perch, walleye, northern pike and muskellunge, although primary predators are humans.
Reproduction and Life Cycle
Spawning occurs in the spring when water temperatures reach 54 to 64 degrees Fahrenheit. Males build and guard crude, saucer-shaped nests in shallow waters. Fish prefer to spawn on gravel substrate, but will also nest on other substrates, including vegetation, roots, sand, mud and rocks.
Eggs hatch in four to six days, and larvae remain in schools under the protection of the adult male for a month after hatching. Females reach sexual maturity at four to five months of age, while males reach sexual maturity at three to four months of age. Largemouth bass can live up to 25 years.
Did You Know?
- The largemouth bass is one of the most popular sport fishes in the United States. The record largemouth bass was caught in Georgia and weighed 22 pounds.
Sources and Additional Information
- Life in the Chesapeake Bay by Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson
- Chesapeake Bay, Nature of the Estuary, A Field Guide by Christopher P. White
- Fishes of Chesapeake Bay by Edward O. Murdy, Ray S. Birdsong and John A. Musick
- Micropterus salmoides: Bass – University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
- Maryland Fish Facts: Largemouth Bass – Maryland Department of Natural Resources