The Chesapeake Bay was the first estuary in the nation targeted by Congress for restoration and protection. Since the Chesapeake Bay Program’s formation in 1983, several written agreements have guided the partnership’s pollution reduction and ecosystem restoration efforts.
In the late 1970s, U.S. Senator Charles “Mac” Mathias (R-Md.) sponsored a Congressionally funded $27 million, five-year study to analyze the Bay’s rapid loss of wildlife and aquatic life. The study, which was published in the early 1980s, identified excess nutrient pollution as the main source of the Bay's degradation. These initial research findings led to the formation of the Chesapeake Bay Program as the means to restore the Bay.
The original Chesapeake Bay Agreement was a simple, one-page pledge signed in 1983. The agreement recognized that a cooperative approach was necessary to address the Bay’s pollution problems. It also established a Chesapeake Bay liaison office in Annapolis, Maryland.
The signatories of the Chesapeake Bay Agreement of 1983 became the Chesapeake Executive Council:
The 1987 Chesapeake Bay Agreement set the first numeric goals to reduce pollution and restore the Bay ecosystem. Among other goals, the agreement aimed to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus entering the Bay by 40 percent by 2000. Agreeing to numeric goals with specific deadlines was unprecedented in 1987, but the practice has become a hallmark of the Bay Program.
In amendments added in 1992, Bay Program partners agreed to attack nutrients at the source: upstream in the Bay's rivers. The Bay Program also began reevaluating its Basinwide Toxics Reduction Strategy to better understand the effects of chemical contaminants on the Bay’s aquatic life.
In 2000, Bay Program partners signed Chesapeake 2000, a comprehensive agreement that set a clear vision and strategy to guide restoration efforts through 2010. Chesapeake 2000 established 102 goals to reduce pollution, restore habitats, protect living resources, promote sound land use practices and engage the public in Bay restoration. It was also the first Bay agreement to emphasize ecosystem-based fisheries management.
Chesapeake 2000 marked the first time that the Bay’s “headwater states” – Delaware, New York and West Virginia – officially joined the Bay Program’s restoration efforts. The governors of New York and Delaware committed to Chesapeake 2000’s water quality goals through a memorandum of understanding signed in 2000. The governor of West Virginia added his signature in 2002.
Chesapeake 2000’s success was mixed. The agreement laid the groundwork for restoration efforts in the 2000s and beyond. Bay Program partners achieved significant restoration gains in certain areas, such as land conservation, forest buffer restoration and reopening fish passage. However, limited progress was made toward many other health and restoration measures, including oyster abundance and reducing nutrient pollution from agriculture and urban areas.
By 2009, it was clear that Bay Program partners needed to dramatically accelerate the pace of Bay restoration. That year, the Executive Council decided to focus on short-term restoration goals called milestones.
In addition to pursuing long-term deadlines like in past agreements, the seven Bay jurisdictions would set and meet goals every two years. By achieving their two-year milestones, the jurisdictions will put in place all restoration measures necessary for a restored Bay no later than 2025.
In 2010, the EPA established the landmark Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL). The Chesapeake Bay TMDL is a federal “pollution diet” that sets limits on the amount of nutrients and sediment that can enter the Bay and its tidal rivers to meet water quality goals.
Each of the seven Bay jurisdictions is creating a Watershed Implementation Plan (WIP) that spells out detailed, specific steps the jurisdiction will take to meet these pollution reductions by 2025. Federal, state and local governments are coordinating through the Bay Program partnership to develop the WIPs.
The WIPs will guide local and state Bay restoration efforts through the next decade and beyond. The Bay jurisdictions will use their two-year milestones to track and assess progress toward completing the restoration actions in their WIPs.