The loggerhead turtle is the largest hard-shelled sea turtle, with a heart-shaped, reddish brown shell. It can be found in the Chesapeake Bay from May to November.
The loggerhead turtle is a large sea turtle that can grow to be between 31 and 45 inches in length and between 170 and 350 pounds, making them the largest hard-shelled sea turtle alive today. The carapace (top shell) is heart shaped while the plastron (lower shell) is smaller and hingeless. Star-shaped light and dark streaks may be present on the carapace. The top of the head, neck, carapace and front of the fore-flippers are reddish brown, while the entire underside, sides of neck and parts of the flippers are cream to yellow. The loggerhead’s snout is short and the upper jaw is yellowish brown. The fore-flippers are large at about half the length of the carapace, while the hind-flippers are short and paddle-like. Each flipper has one or two claws.
Juveniles have a brown carapace with three keels (or ridges) and a whitish, yellowish or tan plastron.
The loggerhead’s preferred habitat changes throughout its lifetime. Hatchlings head towards the ocean after emerging from the nest. Young juveniles drift on mats of seaweed in warm ocean currents, while older juveniles and adults are generally found in coastal waters. The can also be found near coral reefs and in salt marshes, brackish lagoons and the mouths of rivers.
The Chesapeake Bay is an important summer foraging area for loggerheads between the ages of five and fifteen, and they can be found in the Chesapeake Bay south of Baltimore from May to November.
The loggerhead turtle is found in nearly all of the world’s temperate and topical oceans. In the Atlantic Ocean, it can be found from Newfoundland to Argentina. They nest regularly on the beaches of the Carolinas and sometimes as far north as Maryland and New Jersey.
Loggerhead turtles are mainly carnivores, feeding on invertebrates which they crush with their powerful jaws before swallowing. They forage for horseshoe crabs, but will also consume other crustaceans, sponges, jellyfish, mollusks, snails, fish, fish eggs and sea grasses.
Unlike most turtles, sea turtles cannot withdraw into their shells for protection. Loggerheads count on their hard shell and rough, scaly skin on their head and neck to protect them from predators. These defenses are usually sufficient for adults, but they are still preyed upon by sharks or killed by humans when they get caught in fishing gear.
Hatchlings have far fewer defenses and many predators. Females try to disguise nests, but they still suffer from predation. Hatchlings emerge at night to try and avoid predators, but they are still eaten by raccoons, crabs, birds, foxes and carnivorous fish.
Known for their migratory behavior, some loggerhead turtles have been recorded migrating up to 3,000 miles. Loggerheads in temperate waters migrate towards the equator to avoid cold winter waters.
The breeding season lasts from April to August, and they tend to return to the same nesting area year after year. Adults may even return to the very beach where they were hatched. In the Chesapeake Bay region, this is usually a barrier island with a sand beach that’s high enough that it is not inundated by high tides or soaked by ground water rising from below.
A female may lay two to five nests per year, each with 110 to 130 eggs. Like many turtles, loggerheads have temperature-dependent sex determination, meaning that the sex of the hatchlings is determined by egg temperature during incubation. There is no parental care; females leave the eggs after they have been buried. Hatchlings emerge from the nest at night and head towards the ocean.
Not much is known about the lifespan of loggerhead turtles, but it is estimated that they can live for 30 to 62 years in the wild.