The mallard is an extremely common dabbling duck that is easily identified by its iridescent green head and white neck ring. It lives year-round on shallow waters such as lakes, rivers and marshes throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed.
Males and females have different patterns and coloring
Males have an iridescent green head, a yellow bill, and a white ring around the neck. Their chest is chestnut brown and their sides are grayish.
Females are mostly mottled brown with a brownish-orange bill and a dark stripe running through the eye
Both sexes have bluish or violet wing patches (called specula) bordered by black and white
Grows to 23-25 inches with a wingspan of 36 inches
Lives in many shallow-water areas, including streams, rivers, lakes, wetlands and harbors
Often found at marinas, parks and other areas frequented by humans
Found year-round throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed
Eats seeds, snails, insects, bay grasses and aquatic invertebrates
Feeds at the water’s surface or by “tipping up” its tail and submerging its head to reach food underwater
Humans hunt mallards
Can be identified in flight by its green head and bluish or violet wing patch bordered with white
Females quack loudly
Males have a low call that sounds like kewk-kewk
Mallard courtesy of Pamela C. Rasmussen/Avian Vocalizations Center
Reproduction and Life Cycle:
Breeds mostly in the prairie pothole region of Canada and the Dakotas
Local populations breed in the Bay watershed
Builds a nest on high ground near water
The female lays 8-10 pale, greenish eggs that hatch in 28 days
Ducklings follow the female into the water soon after hatching. They are immediately able to find and eat food on their own.
Ducklings fledge within two months of hatching
One of the most abundant waterfowl in the world
Very closely related to black ducks. It is not uncommon for mallards and black ducks to breed, which produces mallard/black duck hybrids that have physical characteristics of both ducks.
Female mallards can be confused with black ducks. You can identify a female mallard by its lighter overall coloring. Mallards are also significantly more common than black ducks.