Bay Barometer shows degraded health of Chesapeake Bay did not improve in 2008; Partnership meets lanBay Barometer shows degraded health of Chesapeake Bay did not improve in 2008; Partnership meets lan Download
Despite increased restoration efforts throughout the watershed, the overall health of the Chesapeake Bay did not improve in 2008, according to a Chesapeake Bay Program report released today.
The nation’s largest estuary continues to have poor water quality, degraded habitats and low populations of several key species of fish and shellfish. Based on these conditions, the Chesapeake Bay’s health averaged 38 percent, with 100 percent representing a fully restored ecosystem. The Chesapeake Bay Program, however, exceeded its goal for land preservation with 7.3 million acres permanently protected from development.
Bay Barometer: A Health and Restoration Assessment of the Chesapeake Bay and Watershed in 2008 provides detailed results on many aspects of the ecosystem and for the first time includes overall scores for both health and restoration. The full report is available at www.chesapeakebay.net.
The Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries are unhealthy primarily because of excess nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment entering the water. The main sources of these pollutants are agriculture, urban and suburban runoff, sewage treatment plants, and air pollution. The Chesapeake Bay Program has goals for Bay health and restoration measures needed to restore the ecosystem. Bay Barometer provides an annual update on progress.
Water quality in the Bay was poor in 2008, meeting only 21 percent of goals. This includes measures for dissolved oxygen, water clarity, algae and chemical contaminants. But there were gains in the underwater bay grasses that provide shelter for aquatic life, improve water clarity, increase oxygen and reduce shoreline erosion. Last year, there were 76,861 acres of grasses, which was an increase of 11,943 acres (18 percent) from 2007.
Bay Barometer, however, showed a drop in the blue crab population. The goal is to have 200 million blue crabs in the Bay that are at least one year old, which is spawning age. Last year, the population of blue crabs was 120 million – a decrease from 143 million in 2007. The abundance of oysters and shad remained at low levels.
“While there are small successes in certain parts of the ecosystem and specific geographic areas, the sobering data in this report reflect only marginal shifts from last year’s results,” said Jeffrey Lape, Director of the Chesapeake Bay Program. “This affirms the need to take bolder actions and involve a wider network of stakeholders and resources to achieve significant improvements throughout the watershed.”
Chesapeake Bay Program partners continued to put new restoration programs and projects in place in 2008. According to Bay Barometer, restoration efforts stand at 61 percent, with 100 percent meaning that all measures needed for a restored Bay are implemented. Work is underway to reduce pollution, restore habitats, manage fisheries, protect watersheds and foster stewardship.
Bay Barometer also shows that the partnership has met its goal for land preservation. Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia and the District of Columbia committed to permanently protect 20 percent of their combined 34 million acres by 2010. Through the end of last year, the total land protected was 7.3 million acres, which surpassed the goal two years before the deadline. Forests, parks, wildlife refuges and other natural areas provide habitat for animals and filter pollution before it reaches the Bay and its tributaries
“Permanently protecting land from development is one of the most important ways to help the health of Chesapeake Bay,” said Virginia Governor Timothy M. Kaine, the chairman of the Chesapeake Executive Council. “Preserving more than 7 million acres of land is a tremendous success for the partners of the Chesapeake Bay Program and the citizens of the region. The Commonwealth of Virginia is proud to have made significant contributions to this worthy goal by protecting about 2.5 million acres.”
Bay Barometer also shows that the Chesapeake Bay Program is making significant progress in restoring fish passage in rivers, expanding public access locations and providing educational experiences for millions of students throughout the 64,000-square-mile watershed.
One of the greatest challenges is population growth and development in the region, which destroys forests, wetlands and other natural areas. The impact of human activity is overwhelming nature and offsetting cleanup efforts. Because the watershed’s 17 million residents have an impact on local waterways and the Bay, a section called “How You Can Help” was added to Bay Barometer. It shows simple actions that people can take to reduce pollution, such as not fertilizing lawns, installing a rain barrel or volunteering for a watershed group.
Information in Bay Barometer will be used by the Chesapeake Executive Council at their annual meeting in May. The Chesapeake Executive Council establishes the policy agenda for the Chesapeake Bay Program and is comprised of executives from the six Bay states, the District of Columbia, the Chesapeake Bay Commission, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Agriculture.